Psychosis and Schizophrenia

Psychosis and Schizophrenia

Psychosis is a syndrome. A syndrome is a set of symptoms. The symptom is a sign of a disease.


1-Delusion (Delusion/Delusion): Although it is refuted by evidence and logic, it cannot be considered normal in relation to the person's culture, religion and education. their beliefs. For example: someone you know well may one day declare himself Mahdi or Ataturk, or claim that the lyrics of the song of the singer on television were written for him. No person or power can deter him from this thought.

2-Hallucination: It is the person's notification that he perceives a non-existent sound, image, taste, smell, or touch sensation. If the person is talking to himself, you are watching him chat or fight with someone who is talking about his own world. You can't tell him that he doesn't actually have someone with him. For example: A person may say that a spell was cast on him and lard was put in his food and he tasted it. Again, telling him that the food tastes normal doesn't mean anything. However, you can make him angry.

3-Disorganized speech: When you start speaking, your speech has a topic and a frame. You feel this frame in schizophrenia, too. But he cannot clearly express what he thinks to you with proper sentences and clear content.

4-Disorganized behavior: For example, he may insistently ask for the jacket you are wearing or try to take something that belongs to you without asking. He may try to unscrew the light bulb in the room. A thought disorder usually underlies this strange behavior. He/she may have a thought disorder that thinks there is a camera inside the light bulb.




There are significant disorders in thoughts, emotions and behaviors, and the patient is affected by interpersonal relationships and It is a brain disease that usually starts in adolescence, where people move away from reality and live in their own world.

The cause of death (cardiovascular diseases, smoking, unhealthy diet, obesity, inactivity, diabetes... Because the most important symptom of the disease is that they cannot take care of themselves. Untreated and chronic (old-lasting for more than 6 months) Anyone who sees schizophrenia recognizes it. You can see his hair and beard tangled, his clothes dirty, his nails long and dirty, and a very specific bad smell. Do not be deceived by this description. If the disease is recognized and treated early, and if the social support network is strong, you will have a bright and bright life. You may see young or young people, a small question mark may appear in your mind. There is a difference, but what is it? Diy e you may find yourself thinking.


A) Positive Symptoms:

2 of the following 4 symptoms within a month;



3-Disorganized speech

4-Disorganized or catatonic behavior

Negative symptoms


B) Impairment in social and professional functions;

Decrease in performance in self-care, family life, work life, interpersonal relationships.

C) 6 months.


Paranoid type (suspicion, grandiosity, religion) is the most quickly noticed, most frightening and loudest type, but it responds best to treatment.

Disorganized. The most peculiar type is the one that starts insidiously and responds less to medications with the least improvement.

The catatonic type, on the other hand, is accompanied by behavioral disorders and manifests itself primarily with strange body postures, postures, gestures and facial expressions.

Undifferentiated type is the type of schizophrenia that we cannot distinguish into any type.

Residual type (negative symptoms predominate, decrease in entrepreneurship, concretion and impoverishment in thought, poor self-care, callousness).

Simple schizophrenia ( insidious and slow onset, negative symptoms). It starts insidiously and smolders without ever igniting, taking away the person's personality, talent, capacity and motivational features. These patients; They are confused with teenage problems, carelessness, laziness and not taking responsibility.

POSITIVE SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA: Delirium, hallucination, disorganized speech and behavior: They are dramatic (everyone notices). They disconnect from reality and respond well to antipsychotic drugs.

NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA: Alogy (Loss of fluency and creativity in thought, speech). Asociality (It is introversion) (Anti-sociality means breaking the rules). Let's not get confused. Anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure), Avolution (Loss of motivation, loss of hygiene, loss of job).


The cause is unknown. It has been determined that its incidence is high in children born in late winter and early spring. Genetic burden is higher than environmental burden in family, twin and adoption studies.

Biochemical studies; dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, glutamate, stress-predisposition model: Biological, psychological, environmental stress, trauma, substance (marijuana, cocaine, etc.).

It has been determined that the rate of schizophrenia is high in those born during famine periods. It has also been determined that high paternal age increases the likelihood of schizophrenia in the child.

Chromosomes 5,6,8,11,18,19,22 and X.


The risk of occurrence is high in men, those with higher education, young people, missed depression (depressive episode after psychosis), and white races.

Feeling of emptiness, unemployment, escaping from mental torture, social isolation, high expectation, dependence on treatment, disability, awareness of the disease, drug use Suicide, rejection, hopelessness are the factors that cause suicide immediately after discharge from the hospital / in the initial period of the disease.


Use of hallucinogens in LSD, Concerta, Ritalin (methylphenidate). Pregnancy, post-accident events, losses, marriages, stress-trauma and extremely happy events are the reasons that increase the emergence of the disease.


Violent delirium, hallucination. Dangerous behavior in the hospital, Previous history of violence in the patient, Unpredictable aggression. Don't let all this intimidate anyone. The average schizophrenic patient needs to be protected from society. General judgment in society; The belief is that schizophrenia is dangerous. That's why our patients experience job loss, spouse loss, and become introverted. They do not have a higher potential for aggression than the average individual. On the contrary, it is necessary to protect them from physical and psychological violence.

Positive Progression Symptoms in Schizophrenia

Sudden, colorful, onset at a late age, If stress is a factor, If catatonic-schizoaffective, family is orderly, emotional expression If it is low (calm, patient, can communicate well, accepts and consents to the disease and the patient), If it is treated early, in developing countries.

Symptoms of Negative Progression in Schizophrenia:

Early and insidious onset ,If there is schizoid and schizotypal personality disorder, If there is a long and long hospitalization, If there is a hereditary burden, If negative symptoms are dominant, If the family environment is disrupted, the mood is extroverted, If the patient has high expectations from himself and the family from the patient.

Premorbid Personality. Characteristics


Unusual perception, thought, behavior, speech and clothing style are observed. He has no close friends or confidant. K� He has restricted, inappropriate emotions, a strange and unique clothing style.


He is introverted. Shows emotional restraint. Does not react to praise or criticism. He is also uninterested in sexual life. He has no confidant


He is insecure and suspicious. Suspects others of exploiting, deceiving, or harming him/her. He does not want to tell secrets to others, he is angry and bears grudges, he infers that he is humiliated or intimidated

Treatment Goals in Schizophrenia:



For example: When applied under short-term anesthesia and in hospital conditions, it is very reliable and sometimes life-saving if it is done with the correct indication. It is a treatment method. Unfortunately, it is a great misfortune that it is perceived in society as a painful, frightening, and torture device, thanks to the wrong judgments obtained in cinema and television. And it is completely wrong information.

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