Do you often blink, squint, or rub your eyes in order to see an object or your surroundings more clearly in your daily life? Blurred vision can be defined as decreased visual acuity and poor image quality. Blurred vision can affect both eyes or be unilateral. Blurred vision in the eyes that persists for a long time can be controlled with tools such as glasses and lenses, and in case of sudden onset and especially unilateral blurred vision, a physician should be consulted immediately.
What are the Causes of Blurred (Foggy) Vision?
Blurred vision can sometimes be the inability to see the object being viewed clearly, and sometimes the whole or part of the field of view may be blurred. Blurred vision may be experienced in the eyes due to the decrease in visual functions with advancing age or a change in the degree of active use of glasses. However, it should not be forgotten that there may be different underlying causes. Examples of situations that cause blurred vision can be listed as follows:
- Inability to see near (Hyperopia) or far (Myopia) clearly
- Sensitivity to light
- Astigmatism (Blurred and double vision)
- Sudden loss of vision
- Dry eye syndrome
- Direct trauma to the eye
- Intraocular bleeding
- Scratches on the cornea
- Yellow spot disease
- Glaucoma (Eye tension)
- Infection (Conjunctivitis)
- Infection of intraocular tissues (Uveitis)
- Inflammation of the optic nerve
- Decreased vision due to diabetes (Diabetic retinopathy)
- Preeclampsia (High blood pressure during pregnancy)
- Damage or infection in the optic nerve
- Brain hemorrhage
- Vascular occlusion
Sudden Blurred Vision
Sudden blurred vision, expressed in a few minutes or a few days is the case. It is important to know the factors and underlying causes that accompany blurry vision. In cases of low blood pressure due to prolonged inactivity, long-term exposure to digital screens, transition from dark environment to light environment can cause sudden blurred vision. However, sudden changes in blood values and symptoms of some neurological diseases can also occur. blurred vision may occur. It is important to consult a physician without delay if the sudden onset of blurred vision is accompanied by dizziness, numbness in an arm or joint, pain in the chest, speech disorder, drooping of a part of the face.
Is Blurred Vision Temporary?
Blurred vision may also be temporary if blurred vision is not accompanied by some factors and some genetic diseases. Blurred vision can be temporary by providing necessary eye hygiene, avoiding environments that force the eyes (such as computers, telephones), using glasses suitable for the eye grade, and using eye drops to prevent dry eyes. It is important to distinguish the factors that cause blurred vision. It is important that the cause of blurred vision is diagnosed by the physician by applying the necessary test methods and then appropriate treatment is started. Blurred vision in the morning is quite common. The causes of blurred vision in the morning are generally as follows:
- Dry eye
- Eye allergy
- Sleeping with contact lenses
- Irregularity of blood sugar
- Consumption of alcohol before going to sleep
- Use of devices that can change the humidity balance of the environment such as air conditioners or fans
Treatment of Blurred Vision
Physicians who are experts in the field to diagnose the causes of blurred vision (Ophthalmologist) various tests are done. In some cases, referrals to different department physicians can be made with a multidisciplinary approach. Some of the tests used in the diagnosis of blurred vision are as follows:
- Examination of the Anterior Part of the Eye: Examination of the cornea, iris and lens.
- Frontal Examination: Examination of the retina and optic nerve.
- Visual Field Test: It helps to determine the visual field for each eye and to measure the visual field limit.
- Color Blindness Test: It is the test method used to determine the color perception of the eye. It is used to show the inadequacy of color perception.
- Visual Acuity Test: With text or picture from a certain distance Pupil Test: It is a test method that measures the reaction of the pupils by shining a light on the pupil by the physician. While pupils respond to light by shrinking in the normal situation, there is no shrinkage or enlargement depending on the underlying problem.
- Eye Mobility Test: It is a test method that shows the eye's ability to move. If there is a problem in the eye muscles or nerves, limitation of movement is observed.
- Eye Pressure: Measurement is made with a tonometry device, which is used to measure eye pressure by blowing air into the eye.
- Magnetic Resonance (MR): Sudden It is one of the tests used in blurred vision. It is especially used in the diagnosis of problems caused by conditions such as brain, vascular occlusion, optic nerve infection.
- Retinal Detachment (Retinal detachment, tear): It is the part at the back of the eye that absorbs light. It progresses with sudden vision loss and blurred vision. When the diagnosis is made, retinal surgery or vitrectomy surgery is performed under emergency conditions.
- Myopia/Hypermetropia/Astigmatism: Eye refraction problems, which are the most common causes of blurred vision, are treated by the physician by applying the necessary tests and using glasses or contact lenses prescribed for the individual. . Depending on the age and general health of the individual, laser surgery is also among the treatment options, if the physician deems it appropriate.
- Cerebrovascular Incident (Stroke): Problems in feeding the eye as a result of occlusion of brain vessels can cause problems such as vision loss and blurred vision. Emergency intervention should be performed according to the time of stroke and the affected brain region.
- Conjunctivitis: It is a disease that progresses with inflammation of the white part of the eye. According to the cause of the inflammation, antibiotic treatment or if there is exposure to an allergic agent, treatment with allergic eye drops is planned.
- Uveitis: It is the inflammation of the uvea layer of the eye. After uveitis, conditions such as blurred vision, redness of the eye, and light sensitivity are seen. It is usually seen due to rheumatological diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis, Behçet's disease, sarcoidosis and infectious diseases such as toxoplasma and herpes. Treatment is carried out in accordance with the actual diagnosis.
- Optical Neuritis (Neuritis): It progresses with sudden onset of blurred vision and loss of vision. One of the most common causes is multiple sclerosis. It can also be seen after viral infections. Medications containing cortisone are used in the treatment.
What Should Be Considered for Eye Health?
Regular eye examination should be done for eye health. However, there are some important steps to be considered in daily life for eye health. These can be listed as follows:
- Hands must be washed before and after using contact lenses to reduce the risk of infection.
- Contact lenses must be removed before going to sleep.
- Supporting eye health A, C, and E vitamins should be included in the diet frequently (Carrot, spinach, foods containing omega-3s, red pepper, sweet potato, chia seeds)
- Plenty of water should be consumed.
- Blue-violet light from digital screens such as computers, phones and televisions can be harmful to eye health. Therefore, the duration of use of these devices should be limited.
- Sunglasses and hats should be used to minimize the damage of UV rays.
- Glasses should be used when necessary within the scope of occupational safety.
- Since the smoke of tobacco products will adversely affect eye health, its use should be limited or terminated. The environment where tobacco products are used should be ventilated frequently.
- Diabetes, blood pressure and cholesterol medications should be used regularly and patients should pay attention to their diets.