What is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and its Treatment?

What is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and its Treatment?

Obsessive compulsive disorder is basically; obsessive thoughts (obsessions) that suddenly form in the mind of the individual, outside of his/her will and self-control, and dominate the mind, which are disturbing, often threatening, persistent and repetitive, which often seem absurd and meaningless to the individual, but which the individual cannot remove from the mind with a voluntary effort, and which the individual cannot prevent, It is a mental disorder caused by repetitive, ruminative behavior patterns (compulsions) that serve to reduce or eliminate the anxiety created by obsessions, mostly in response to obsessions.

Scientifically revealed obsessions, of which there are many types, are often described as "meaningless and ridiculous" by the person himself. Despite this, the individual cannot remove these persistent and repetitive thoughts that attack his mind with a voluntary effort. At a certain level, obsessions become so intense that the individual almost begins to live his day according to his obsessive thoughts. The mind, looking for a way to suppress, reduce or neutralize the discomfort, threat perception and anxiety caused by obsessions, often develops repetitive and often out of control repetitive behavior patterns against obsessions. Repetitive, disturbing, anxiety-provoking, persistent thoughts that dominate the mind and repetitive, extremely disturbing actions taken to reduce or eliminate their effects now take over the person's entire life and do not allow the individual a free living space. However, this vicious circle seriously impairs the individual's functionality in all personal, work, school and interpersonal areas.

 In the ordinary course of human life, from time to time, there may be doubts, anxieties, anxiety and obsessions arising from many factors. Considering the fact that many stressful factors accompany our lives in daily life, the life flow of human beings that develops in an accelerated format over time, and the uncertainty of the future, it is clear that these are natural emotions and thoughts, and mostly people can cope with these emotions and thoughts. They can solve problems without letting them negatively affect their lives. However, obsessions and the compulsions that arise as a result of their existence go far beyond these. It is a serious condition in which the person cannot consciously remove it from his/her mind and cannot stop himself/herself from doing it, and ultimately causes significant functional impairment in the person's entire life area.

Obsessions can be thoughts that are possible or can be realized, but in some cases they can also be unrealistic or delusional. However, in both conditions, the individual clearly states that such a thing will not actually happen, but that he cannot get these thoughts out of his mind. In cases of OCD, it is often possible to hear individuals say, "I know it's ridiculous, I know such a thing can't happen, but no matter what I do, I can't stop myself from thinking about them." Obsessions also often involve expressions of hesitation and, however, are never definitive statements. “What if I did it, what if it happened, what if I did it, or what if I did it, what if it happened?” These are thoughts that go on and on.

HOW OFTEN, AT WHAT AGES AND IN WHOM IS OCD SEEN MORE?

When the research conducted in recent years is examined, it is possible to understand how common OCD is in our society. Research shows that today, 3-4 out of every 100 people have OCD. OCD, which has clearly stated that there has been a serious increase in its incidence recently, is a mental disorder that can occur at any age, although it is a condition that usually begins in adolescence and is frequently seen in the 20-30s. Although it is known to occur earlier in men, it is supported by research that it is more common in women and women make up the majority of the population.

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD)?

All symptoms of a patient with obsessive compulsive disorder can be collected under four main headings:

1) The person has repetitive and distressing behaviors that he cannot avoid or prevent. These are the patient's compulsions and consist of observable behaviors; such as washing hands, wiping, nodding, counting.

2) There are behaviors that the person avoids or avoids. Not being able to touch, sit or even go somewhere for fear of contamination.

3) The person has repetitive or unavoidable thoughts. These thoughts are also compulsions, but they cannot be observed from the outside. Such as counting, repeating certain thoughts, repeating certain words.

4) There are thoughts that the patient avoids or tries to escape, and these are the patient's obsessions. There is an effort to escape from these thoughts, to stop them or to neutralize them through compulsions.

MOST COMMON OBSESSIONS AND COMPULSIONS 

Doubt Obsession and Control Compulsion 

 It is the most common type. Person cooker, door, natural gas, valve, etc. He/she constantly and persistently doubts the possibility of having left something open, not locking the car, or forgetting some items plugged in (doubt obsession), and feels the need to constantly and repeatedly go back and check with the need to be sure (checking compulsion). This vicious circle can manifest itself at many different points in a person's life.

Contamination Obsession and Cleaning Compulsion

 The person's body, clothes, It is a vicious cycle of persistent thoughts that one's home or any living space or belongings are contaminated by many factors such as germs and dirt (contamination obsession) and repetitive behaviors to eliminate the anxiety of these possibilities (cleaning compulsion). A person constantly cleans and washes his/her environment or his/her own body against possible contamination.

Sexual Obsessions

 Thoughts that do not suit him, his age and social position, but are These are sexual obsessions that he can't stop thinking about. The person has persistent thoughts of a sexual nature towards an inappropriate person or persons. Because of these thoughts, the person may often avoid social environments and punish himself/herself due to these thoughts.

Religious Obsessions

 The person may have repetitive thoughts that constantly occupy his mind in line with his beliefs. Persistent thoughts that he will be punished, polluted, or should be punished by the Creator for a wrong action or thought he has done or will have, persistent rituals in line with his religious beliefs, persistent delusional thoughts that persistently come to his mind while performing the rituals required by his religious beliefs.

Symmetry-order Obsessions and Compulsions

 Very common; Arranging the items symmetrically, arranging them in alphabetical order, separating the clothes according to color transitions, folding and placing the clothes in an orderly manner, often worrying that something bad will happen to oneself or one's loved ones if one does not do these things, fearing that one's day will be bad or everything will go wrong. These are obsessions and compulsions that take the form of repetitive thoughts about something.

Touch Compulsions

Some OCD patients sometimes feel uncomfortable before going somewhere, traveling, starting something new, etc. In situations, they cannot help but touch something that will bring them luck or good luck.

Counting Compulsions

 Some OCD patients believe that if they do not do any daily activity up to a certain number, everything will go wrong. They carry beliefs. Or, in some cases, they show counting compulsions to relieve their anxiety arising from different obsessions.

Hoarding and Storing Compulsions

 It is a common type of compulsion. Person necessary-unnecessary all spouse He collects and hoards his tears due to the need to hide them, to suppress the anxiety caused by persistent thoughts about the disasters that may happen to him if he says goodbye to them.

Superstitious Thoughts, Lucky-Unlucky Numbers, Objects and Colors

 In some OCD patients, buying according to lucky-unlucky numbers, moving, starting and finishing behaviors are observed. The same applies to items and colors.

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD)?

Although the exact cause is unknown, many biological and environmental factors are thought to play a role in the development of the disease.

• Genetic Factors 

• Impairment in Brain Functions and Seratonin Balance 

• Childhood Traumas 

• Personality Traits 

< Factors such as p> can be counted among the reasons considered for the development and course of the disease.

It is thought that the presence of a mental illness in the person's family and the presence of a history of OCD diagnosis in parents and first-degree relatives trigger the formation of OCD as a genetic factor. It is thought that an excessive decrease in the level of serotonin, which is an important factor in neurotransmission in some parts of the brain, or a deterioration in its functionality, facilitates the formation of OCD. In addition to these, childhood traumas; For example, it has been observed that people exposed to situations such as sexual abuse, childhood neglect and abuse, and violence play an important role in the development of OCD that occurs in adulthood or childhood-onset OCD in children. In addition, the person's personality characteristics also appear as a factor that needs to be considered among the causes of OCD. Obsessive-compulsive personality pattern, defense mechanisms, etc. in the person. When taken into consideration, a predisposition to OCD due to personality traits can be observed.

CAN OBSESIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) BE TREATED? HOW?

A person with obsessive compulsive disorder

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