ORF disease is a viral disease that occurs in animals and humans all over the world. ORF disease is also seen in all regions of our country. There is an increase in the incidence of this disease in animals, especially towards the spring and summer periods. There is an increase in the risk of ORF disease in humans after periods of increased incidence of the disease in animals and after Eid-al-Adha.
What is ORF Disease?
ORF disease caused by a type of virus called Parapoxvirus It is a disease usually seen in hairless areas of animals such as sheep, goats and deer, such as around the mouth, lips, nostrils, nipples and feet. When the characteristics of the virus causing the disease are examined, it has been determined that it is a brick-shaped DNA virus that tends to affect skin cells. Although the disease usually has a good prognosis, care should be taken as it can rarely reach dangerous dimensions.
How is ORF Disease Transmitted?
ORF disease is a direct contact with an animal with a lesion related to this disease (in the skin). transmission of the virus through cuts and wounds) or after an indirect contact. Human-to-human transmission is rare. Care should be taken as Parapoxvirus can survive for long periods in animals, fences, animal shelters and soil. At the same time, even if some animals are infected with this virus, the fact that they can only be carriers of this disease without showing any symptoms is another situation that needs attention.
Touching a sick animal, contact with the dead animal, contact with newly vaccinated animals, ORF disease can be transmitted from animals to humans after contact with tools or being bitten by a sick animal.
There are various risk groups for the transmission of ORF disease:
- Farmers and other members of the farmer's family,
- Slaughterhouse workers,
- Wool trimmers,
- Animal at Eid al-Adha Persons who are interested in the slaughter of the animals,
- Housewives who process the meat around the lesioned areas
What are the Symptoms of ORF Disease?
Causes of Parapoxvirus Lesions of the ORF disease, which is a disease, usually occur in areas of animals such as lips, around the nostrils, around the breasts, and it is a disease that tends to regress within 3-4 weeks without any treatment. Animals that contract this disease and then survive the disease become immune to ORF for the rest of their lives. called duration. With the end of the incubation period, one or more circular skin lesions appear in the infected skin area. Lesions caused by ORF disease usually occur on the back of the fingers and hands in humans. Rarely, lesions may occur on the face and other parts of the body. At the same time, the addition of a bacterial infection to the disease picture in addition to ORF in the area where the scar tissue is formed may aggravate the current situation, so care should be taken.
Another condition that should be noted among the symptoms of ORF disease is that the lesions, which normally do not exceed 1-2 in number, are larger and more numerous. An ORF disease that progresses in this way may indicate that the immune system of that person may be suppressed to a great extent. Wounds with a red center may form white and red rings around them, resulting in a target-like lesion.
In the later stages of the disease, a thick crust forms on the scar tissue and this scar occurs in a period of approximately 4-6 weeks. tissue begins to regress without leaving a trace.
ORF disease consists of 6 stages lasting an average of one week:
- Maculopapular stage is the first stage of ORF disease. It means discoloration that is the same level as the macula skin. The skin lesion, which starts as a macule, is called a papule when it becomes raised from the skin.
- The stage of the target appearance describes the lesion in the second stage of the disease. A scar with a red center is surrounded by a white ring and the outer parts of this white ring are also red in color, so it is called the target appearance.
- The third stage of ORF disease is the nodular stage. Nodule is a dermatology term that refers to hard lesions located in the lower parts of the skin.
- In the regenerative stage, which is the fourth stage of the disease, it defines the period of dry and black spots on the scar tissue, which was previously red and tended to flow.
- The papillomatous stage is the fifth stage of ORF disease. At this stage of the disease, warty structures appear on the lesions.
- The regressive stage is the sixth and final stage in which the disease begins to regress. It is observed that a dry and thick crust forms on the lesion.
How is the Diagnosis and Treatment of ORF Disease?
The diagnostic approach to ORF disease begins with taking the patient's history. Situations that may pave the way for the development of ORF, such as working in livestock or other risky occupations, sacrificing or contact with animals are examined. The characteristics of the wound are examined in the physical examination performed by the physician following the history taking.
After the patient's history and physical examination, the diagnosis of ORF can be made by examining the scar tissue sample under a microscope, when necessary. For the definitive diagnosis of ORF disease, a method called PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is used. It enables the presence of DNA material belonging to the virus in the sample taken, regardless of the stage of the defect.
Leather liquor it occurs after a bacterium called bacillus anthracis is transmitted from animals to humans. If the lesion on the skin occurs due to anthrax disease; These two diseases can be distinguished from each other by detecting bacteria. The general approach in the treatment of such lesions is to clean the wound area by surgical intervention, but such surgical interventions are rarely used in the treatment of ORF. Unnecessary surgical intervention to ORF lesions, which would normally heal spontaneously within a few weeks without leaving a scar, may cause undesirable conditions such as prolongation of the healing period and scarring.
Lesions formed due to ORF disease should be kept clean in order to prevent the addition of a bacterial infection to this disease. For this purpose, antiseptic solutions can be used within the scope of the physician's recommendation. Due to the severe course of the disease in people whose immune system cannot fully perform its functions, ORF is treated by adding various antiviral creams to the treatment.