Ultrasoundography is a fast, radiation-free, safe imaging procedure. Ultrasound is usually done outside the body. However, for some types of ultrasound, the USG probe may need to be placed inside the body.
What is Ultrasound and USG?
Ultrasonography, or USG, is an imaging method that uses sound waves to evaluate the appearance of organs in the body. . A probe that transmits high sound waves to the body is used to take ultrasound. By placing this probe on certain parts of the body, an image of the structures in the relevant regions is obtained. Since sound waves are used to obtain images in ultrasound, there is no radiation risk in the USG process. For this reason, ultrasound is a method that can be used in babies, young children and pregnant women with peace of mind.
How is Ultrasound Applied?
Usually, no additional preparation is required before ultrasound. It is recommended that patients wear comfortable clothes before going to the ultrasound appointment for the comfort of the patient. Before the ultrasound, the patient may be asked to take off his clothes and wear a hospital gown, or to open the area to be ultrasound without removing the clothes. Again, jewelry and metal items in the area to be ultrasound should be removed. The patient, who is ready for the procedure, is taken to the examination table. This gel provides an ideal medium for the transmission of sound waves and prevents the formation of air pockets. After the procedure, the gel can be easily cleaned by wiping it with a napkin.
A small hand-held device called a probe is placed on the gel during shooting. The probe transmits the sound waves to the body and collects the sound waves reflected back from the body and sends them to the ultrasound device that creates the image. The ultrasound device also transforms the reflected sound waves into images. The probe is moved around the area where the ultrasound is taken so that a large area is visualized. During ultrasound scanning, images of some important or abnormal structures are recorded and printed. These images are added to the patient's file.
In Which Diseases Ultrasound Is Used?
Ultrasound can be used in the diagnosis of many diseases as well as needle biopsy. It can also be used as a guide in operations such as i. Since ultrasound is safe to use in pregnant women, pregnancy follow-up can also be done with this method. The following diseases can be detected with diagnostic ultrasound:
- Structural disorders in the main vessels such as the heart and aorta
- Occlusions in the gallbladder, gallstones
- Benign or malignant tumors of the thyroid
- Diseases of the abdominal organs and kidneys such as fatty liver, hydronephrosis
- Structural problems of the testicles
- Benign or malignant masses in the breast
- Irregularities such as thickening and mass in the uterine wall and ovaries
- Evaluation of hip, brain and spinal cord in babies
- Determining the size and position of the fetus
- Confirming conditions such as multiple pregnancy
- Calculating the week of pregnancy
- such as Down syndrome To evaluate features such as nuchal translucency that may develop due to some genetic problems
- To detect abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord, heart and other body parts of the fetus
- To check whether the amniotic fluid in which the fetus swims is in sufficient amount
Types of Ultrasound
Types of ultrasound can be listed as follows:
1. Abdominal Ultrasound
Abdominal ultrasound; It is performed to examine the liver, spleen, gall bladder, pancreas and kidney, which are the major organs in the abdominal cavity. Diseases that can be detected by abdominal ultrasound are as follows:
- Blood clot
- Growth in organs such as liver, spleen and kidney
- In the abdomen fluid accumulation
- Umbilical hernia
- Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
- Kidney cancer
- Kidney stones
- Liver cancer
- Intra-abdominal tumors
>2. Pelvic Ultrasound
Pelvic ultrasound is performed to evaluate the bladder. In women, pelvic ultrasound also evaluates the uterus, ovaries (ovaries), cervix (cervix), fallopian tubes, and vagina. In men, in addition to the bladder, the prostate gland and seminal vesicles are displayed. Purposes of use of pelvic ultrasound in women are as follows:
- Ovarian, uterine or bladder cancer
- Detection of benign structures such as cysts and fibroids in the ovary and uterus
- Inguinal pain, excessive menstruation Investigation of conditions such as bleeding
- Investigation and treatment of fertility
- Evaluation of pelvic inflammatory disease (PIH), which is an infection of the ovaries, tubes and uterus
- Uterine thickening It can also be used as a guide for the detection and follow-up of conditions such as cyst appearance in the ovaries
In transvaginal ultrasound, the probe is advanced through the vaginal area so that the sound waves are transmitted more directly to structures such as the cervix, uterus and ovaries. The conditions investigated with transvaginal and pelvic ultrasound are similar. Transvaginal method can provide more detailed and clear images than pelvic ultrasound.
4. Breast Ultrasound
Breast ultrasound can be used in the evaluation of complaints such as breast mass, changes in breast skin and tissue, discharge from the nipple, pain in the breast. If a suspicious situation is seen in breast ultrasound, mammography can be applied. Breast USG can be performed together with mammography in breast cancer screening.
5. Echocardiography (ECO)
Transthoracic echocardiography is an ultrasound method in which the heart and main vessels are evaluated over the chest. The situations that can be detected by ECO, which is one of the most frequently used methods of the cardiology department, are as follows:
- Changes in heart dimensions such as enlargement of the heart, thickening of the heart muscle
- Problems such as insufficiency, narrowing, and regurgitation of the heart valves detection
- Diagnosis of structural abnormalities in the aorta, the main vessel exiting the heart
- Investigating conditions such as fluid and mass surrounding the heart
- Evaluation of contraction and relaxation functions of the heart
- Is there a blood clot in the heart Examining the validity
Thyroid ultrasound can be used to evaluate both the thyroid gland and the small parathyroid glands located above the thyroid gland. With thyroid ultrasound, nodules, cysts and tumor tissues in the thyroid can be visualized.
7. Transrectal Ultrasound
It is a type of ultrasound where the ultrasound probe is advanced into the anus. With transrectal ultrasound, the rectum and prostate, which are part of the large intestine, are evaluated. Transrectal ultrasound is also used in prostate enlargement. This ultrasound can also be used to obtain a biopsy sample from the prostate.
8. Brain Ultrasound
Cranial ultrasound, also known as brain ultrasound, is a procedure performed especially in infants. In adults, brain ultrasound is not good enough because the skull bones are hardened and fused, and sound waves do not show the structures behind the bone. However, since the skull bones in infants do not fully fuse, it is possible to see the major structures in the brain.
9. Color Doppler Ultrasound
A high frequency sound wave is sent to red blood cells in Doppler ultrasound. Thus, the blood flow in the examined area is evaluated. The blood flow is seen in red, blue colors on the ultrasound image; Therefore, Doppler USG is also called color ultrasound. Usage areas of Doppler ultrasound are as follows:
- Blood clots
- Blood or fluid accumulation in this area (venous insufficiency) due to impaired venous circulation in the legs
- Occlusion (occlusion) of the arteries
- Heart valve diseases
- Congenital (Congenital) heart anomalies
- Narrowing of the arteries
Frequently Asked Questions
How long is the ultrasound application period?
The duration of the ultrasound scan varies according to the type of ultrasound. However, it can be said that USG takes approximately 10-30 minutes.
When does the ultrasound result come out?
Damages and abnormalities in the structures examined at the time of ultrasound are detected during the shooting. These detected conditions can be reported immediately or the documentation process may take a few days. bun The reason for this is that gastric and intestinal fullness after meals adversely affects the image quality in ultrasound. For this reason, it may be requested from the patient to urinate by drinking plenty of water before the procedure.
Ultrasound is a fast and safe method that can be used in the diagnosis of diseases. However, USG may be insufficient to show all the structures in the body in detail. In addition, the quality of ultrasound is closely related to the experience of the person doing the shooting. For this reason, it may be beneficial to apply to a well-equipped health center where experienced doctors apply ultrasound and, if necessary, devices for procedures such as CT and MRI.