What is Ultrasonography? In Which Diseases Is It Used?

Ultrasoundography is a fast, radiation-free, safe imaging procedure. Ultrasound is usually done outside the body. However, for some types of ultrasound, the USG probe may need to be placed inside the body.

What is Ultrasound and USG?

Ultrasonography, or USG, is an imaging method that uses sound waves to evaluate the appearance of organs in the body. . A probe that transmits high sound waves to the body is used to take ultrasound. By placing this probe on certain parts of the body, an image of the structures in the relevant regions is obtained. Since sound waves are used to obtain images in ultrasound, there is no radiation risk in the USG process. For this reason, ultrasound is a method that can be used in babies, young children and pregnant women with peace of mind.

How is Ultrasound Applied?

Usually, no additional preparation is required before ultrasound. It is recommended that patients wear comfortable clothes before going to the ultrasound appointment for the comfort of the patient. Before the ultrasound, the patient may be asked to take off his clothes and wear a hospital gown, or to open the area to be ultrasound without removing the clothes. Again, jewelry and metal items in the area to be ultrasound should be removed. The patient, who is ready for the procedure, is taken to the examination table. This gel provides an ideal medium for the transmission of sound waves and prevents the formation of air pockets. After the procedure, the gel can be easily cleaned by wiping it with a napkin.

A small hand-held device called a probe is placed on the gel during shooting. The probe transmits the sound waves to the body and collects the sound waves reflected back from the body and sends them to the ultrasound device that creates the image. The ultrasound device also transforms the reflected sound waves into images. The probe is moved around the area where the ultrasound is taken so that a large area is visualized. During ultrasound scanning, images of some important or abnormal structures are recorded and printed. These images are added to the patient's file.

In Which Diseases Ultrasound Is Used?

Ultrasound can be used in the diagnosis of many diseases as well as needle biopsy. It can also be used as a guide in operations such as i. Since ultrasound is safe to use in pregnant women, pregnancy follow-up can also be done with this method. The following diseases can be detected with diagnostic ultrasound:

Pregnancy is a period in which ultrasound is frequently used. USG during pregnancy can be used for the following purposes:

Types of Ultrasound

Types of ultrasound can be listed as follows:

1. Abdominal Ultrasound
Abdominal ultrasound; It is performed to examine the liver, spleen, gall bladder, pancreas and kidney, which are the major organs in the abdominal cavity. Diseases that can be detected by abdominal ultrasound are as follows:

Abdominal ultrasound can be assisted in procedures such as taking samples for biopsy from the abdomen, draining cysts or fluids.

>2. Pelvic Ultrasound
Pelvic ultrasound is performed to evaluate the bladder. In women, pelvic ultrasound also evaluates the uterus, ovaries (ovaries), cervix (cervix), fallopian tubes, and vagina. In men, in addition to the bladder, the prostate gland and seminal vesicles are displayed. Purposes of use of pelvic ultrasound in women are as follows:Pelvic ultrasound, IUD (Intrauterine Device, spiral) insertion, endometrial biopsy.
  • Detection of structural defects and tumoral tissues in prostate and seminal vesicles
  • Diagnosis of diseases such as bladder stones or bladder cancer
  • 3. Transvaginal Ultrasound
    In transvaginal ultrasound, the probe is advanced through the vaginal area so that the sound waves are transmitted more directly to structures such as the cervix, uterus and ovaries. The conditions investigated with transvaginal and pelvic ultrasound are similar. Transvaginal method can provide more detailed and clear images than pelvic ultrasound.

    4. Breast Ultrasound
    Breast ultrasound can be used in the evaluation of complaints such as breast mass, changes in breast skin and tissue, discharge from the nipple, pain in the breast. If a suspicious situation is seen in breast ultrasound, mammography can be applied. Breast USG can be performed together with mammography in breast cancer screening.

    5. Echocardiography (ECO)
    Transthoracic echocardiography is an ultrasound method in which the heart and main vessels are evaluated over the chest. The situations that can be detected by ECO, which is one of the most frequently used methods of the cardiology department, are as follows:6. Thyroid Ultrasound
    Thyroid ultrasound can be used to evaluate both the thyroid gland and the small parathyroid glands located above the thyroid gland. With thyroid ultrasound, nodules, cysts and tumor tissues in the thyroid can be visualized.

    7. Transrectal Ultrasound
    It is a type of ultrasound where the ultrasound probe is advanced into the anus. With transrectal ultrasound, the rectum and prostate, which are part of the large intestine, are evaluated. Transrectal ultrasound is also used in prostate enlargement. This ultrasound can also be used to obtain a biopsy sample from the prostate.

    8. Brain Ultrasound
    Cranial ultrasound, also known as brain ultrasound, is a procedure performed especially in infants. In adults, brain ultrasound is not good enough because the skull bones are hardened and fused, and sound waves do not show the structures behind the bone. However, since the skull bones in infants do not fully fuse, it is possible to see the major structures in the brain.

    9. Color Doppler Ultrasound
    A high frequency sound wave is sent to red blood cells in Doppler ultrasound. Thus, the blood flow in the examined area is evaluated. The blood flow is seen in red, blue colors on the ultrasound image; Therefore, Doppler USG is also called color ultrasound. Usage areas of Doppler ultrasound are as follows:

    Frequently Asked Questions

    How long is the ultrasound application period?
    The duration of the ultrasound scan varies according to the type of ultrasound. However, it can be said that USG takes approximately 10-30 minutes.

    When does the ultrasound result come out?
    Damages and abnormalities in the structures examined at the time of ultrasound are detected during the shooting. These detected conditions can be reported immediately or the documentation process may take a few days. bun The reason for this is that gastric and intestinal fullness after meals adversely affects the image quality in ultrasound. For this reason, it may be requested from the patient to urinate by drinking plenty of water before the procedure.

    Ultrasound is a fast and safe method that can be used in the diagnosis of diseases. However, USG may be insufficient to show all the structures in the body in detail. In addition, the quality of ultrasound is closely related to the experience of the person doing the shooting. For this reason, it may be beneficial to apply to a well-equipped health center where experienced doctors apply ultrasound and, if necessary, devices for procedures such as CT and MRI.

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