Knee pain is one of the most common complaints. The source of knee pain may be the intra-articular tissues or the muscles, tendons, ligaments and sacs around the joint. Acute knee pain is usually caused by trauma, but rheumatic pathologies are usually among the causes of chronic knee pain. Depending on the cause of the pain, the patient may feel the pain in the kneecap, in front of the knee, or behind the knee.

1. Ligament Injuries: Injuries to the knee collateral ligaments or cruciate ligaments are often caused by traumatic

. They are especially common in sports injuries. There is acute knee pain and significant discomfort when walking and bending the knee. In some cases, calcification may occur as a result of repetitive injuries.

Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are the most common cause of knee pain. It may occur alone or may be accompanied by internal collateral ligament and internal meniscus injuries. It is often injured during sudden postures while the quadricep is in a contracted state.

The main findings are knee pain, swelling, and limitation of joint range of motion. In chronic cases, there may be a feeling of discharge in the knee. Treatment includes rest, bandage and cold. After acute period treatment

treatment selection should be made by taking into account the patient's age, activities, and other accompanying problems.

However, regardless of the treatment choice, early and effective physical therapy and rehabilitation is a prerequisite.

It should not be forgotten.

Posterior cruciate ligament injuries: They constitute 3-37% of all knee injuries. The injury can be acute or chronic, alone or in combination with other injuries.

Excessive bending of the knee is the most important mechanism of posterior cruciate ligament injury. physical muay in the neck

Due to an acute injury, redness may be observed on the back of the knee due to bleeding under the skin.

There is swelling and loss of movement in the knee. There is pain and difficulty walking. Treatment includes rest, bandage and cold

application. The course of the disease is generally good.

Lateral ligament injuries: The ligament on the inside of the knee is most commonly injured. It may be accompanied by internal meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

Injury to the external collateral ligament alone is rare. It usually occurs as part of other injuries

. The leading symptom is knee pain. If there is locking in addition to the pain, meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament injury should be considered. The principles applied to other ligament injuries are valid for treatment.

2. Tendinitis (inflammation of the tendon sheath): It may appear as a symptom of rheumatic diseases or as one of the overuse


Patellar Tendinitis (Tendinitis of the kneecap): It is seen in the lower region of the kneecap. It is one of the common

causes of pain.

This condition, known as jumper's knee, is especially common in sports that require frequent repetitive jumping

(volleyball, basketball, tennis, athletics). Various reasons such as incorrect training techniques (insufficient warm-up,

sudden increases in training intensity and frequency, hard ground and bad shoes), imbalance between muscle strength and flexibility

, insufficient flexibility in the calf muscles. It may predispose to patella tendinitis

The characteristic complaint is activity-related patella pain. Pain and stiffness also occur after prolonged sitting or climbing stairs. The priority in treatment is to reduce pain.

For this purpose, physical therapy as well as medication. can benefit from. Then, an exercise program should be organized based on the cause.

3. Meniscus Injuries: Meniscus fills the gap between the joint surfaces of the thigh and shin bone

. They play an important role in maintaining the balance of the knee and distributing and absorbing the load on the joint.

Meniscus injuries occur due to an acute trauma or wear and tear during the aging process. Internal

Meniscus tears are more common than external meniscus tears.

The main complaint in meniscus injuries is knee pain, kneecap pain, swelling and locking. If it is not accompanied by a ligament

lesion, the swelling is not obvious. The damaged area is sensitive to touch. In the acute period, rest, local cold application and bandage are applied. Active, athletic young people should be evaluated for surgical treatment


4. Bursitis (Sac Inflammation): Sacs are structures that are found especially among the structures of the body that rub against each other and prevent them from wearing out.

There are 11 sacs around the knee joint. Inflammation in any of these sacs can cause knee pain

. It may develop secondary to repetitive minor traumas, acute direct trauma, or infection.

There is local kneecap pain, swelling, redness, and increased temperature.

5. Cartilage Fractures (osteochondritis dissecans): It is the malnutrition of the articular cartilage or a part of the bone under the cartilage together with the articular cartilage, and the separation of the bone fragment that has lost its vitality from the healthy tissue.

It often occurs on the inner joint surface of the femur. It is one of the causes of knee pain usually seen in adolescents and is bilateral in 20% of cases. Acute trauma, repeated minor traumas, circulation

It may be caused by disorders and genetic reasons. The patient has knee pain and swelling that increases with activity.

A locking in the knee may be detected due to a loose body called joint rat. Treatment depends on the stage of the disease and the skeletal development of the patient. In patients who have completed skeletal development, orthopedic intervention should be considered in the presence of knee locking or a painful loose body.

6. Joint mouse (Free Body): The most common cause is cartilage lesions and calcifications. The knee joint is the joint where loose bodies are most commonly seen.

The characteristic finding of free bodies is that they cause locking. Locking is accompanied by severe knee pain. It is easily detected on plain radiographs.

In cases causing locking, the free body must be removed surgically.

7. Osteonecrosis (loss of vitality of bone tissue): Classically seen in middle-aged or elderly women. Without trauma, there is sudden onset of knee pain and joint movement limitation.

The findings regress with preventive treatment, especially in cases diagnosed early.

8. Kneecap dislocation: The kneecap bone is a triangular-shaped bone located in front of the knee. When we bend and stretch our knee, the kneecap bone moves up and down within the femur bed. Sometimes

If a muscle or ligament in the knee is stretched in the opposite direction, the kneecap bone is strained. In this case, the kneecap

may be partially or completely dislocated. There is kneecap pain that occurs suddenly when the knee is bent and the patient cannot open the knee. Internal collateral ligament injury may accompany this condition. It is generally more common in young athletes

and girls. Looseness in the ligaments, development abnormality of the femur, abnormally high position of the knee cap, knee dislocation These are factors that predispose to infection.

9. Stress Fracture of the Kneecap: Stress fracture of the kneecap is rare.

10. Osgood-Schlatter disease: It is among the causes of knee pain that often occurs in athletic, active children in their teens. It is osteonecrosis of the tibia. There is activity-related kneecap pain, swelling and tenderness at the upper end of the shinbone under the kneecap. Although it is more common in boys

, it is also more common in girls who participate in sports activities. Findings usually begin during the period of rapid growth

. The pain is intermittent and increases especially during activities such as knee bending, squatting and jumping. Treatment includes activity regulation, medication, cold application and physical therapy.

11. Fat pad syndrome: There are many fat pads within the knee joint. There are three fat pads in the anterior part of the knee joint: above, behind and below the kneecap. These fat pads are a structure rich in vessels and nerves. Fat pad disease under the kneecap, especially known as Hoffa's disease, is very common. It may be the cause of kneecap pain. Knee pain increases with sitting and kneeling for long periods of time.

12. Runner's knee: It is often seen in people who perform repetitive bending and stretching of the knee, such as runners, cyclists, and soldiers. There is pain on the outer side of the knee. Pain usually begins 10-15 minutes after starting a run and is relieved with rest. Sometimes it may occur while walking or going up and down stairs.

Treatment includes rest, local cold application, stretching exercises, medication, physical therapy and



13. Calcification: Calcification, whose medical term is osteoarthritis, They are bone changes that occur at the edges of the joint along with the local loss of joint cartilage, the frequency of which increases with age. Clinically, the main complaints are pain and stiffness. Knee arthritis is among the causes of knee pain that affects one third of the elderly population. It is more common in women and occurs in both knees.


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